# Singular

### A.1.3 Rings associated to monomial orderings

In SINGULAR we may implement localizations of the polynomial ring by choosing an appropriate monomial ordering (when defining the ring by the ring command). We refer to Monomial orderings for a thorough discussion of the monomial orderings available in SINGULAR.

At this point, we restrict ourselves to describing the relation between a monomial ordering and the ring (as mathematical object) which is implemented by the ordering. This is most easily done by describing the set of units: if > is a monomial ordering then precisely those elements which have leading monomial 1 are considered as units (in all computations performed with respect to this ordering).

In mathematical terms: choosing a monomial ordering > implements the localization of the polynomial ring with respect to the multiplicatively closed set of polynomials with leading monomial 1.

That is, choosing implements the ring

If > is global (that is, 1 is the smallest monomial), the implemented ring is just the polynomial ring. If > is local (that is, if 1 is the largest monomial), the implemented ring is the localization of the polynomial ring w.r.t. the homogeneous maximal ideal. For a mixed ordering, we obtain "something in between these two rings":

 ring R = 0,(x,y,z),dp; // polynomial ring (global ordering) poly f = y4z3+2x2y2z2+4z4+5y2+1; f; // display f in a degrevlex-ordered way ==> y4z3+2x2y2z2+4z4+5y2+1 short=0; // avoid short notation f; ==> y^4*z^3+2*x^2*y^2*z^2+4*z^4+5*y^2+1 short=1; leadmonom(f); // leading monomial ==> y4z3 ring r = 0,(x,y,z),ds; // local ring (local ordering) poly f = fetch(R,f); f; // terms of f sorted by degree ==> 1+5y2+4z4+2x2y2z2+y4z3 leadmonom(f); // leading monomial ==> 1 // Now we implement more "advanced" examples of rings: // // 1) (K[y]_)[x] // int n,m=2,3; ring A1 = 0,(x(1..n),y(1..m)),(dp(n),ds(m)); poly f = x(1)*x(2)^2+1+y(1)^10+x(1)*y(2)^5+y(3); leadmonom(f); ==> x(1)*x(2)^2 leadmonom(1+y(1)); // unit ==> 1 leadmonom(1+x(1)); // no unit ==> x(1) // // 2) some ring in between (K[x]_)[y] and K[x,y]_ // ring A2 = 0,(x(1..n),y(1..m)),(ds(n),dp(m)); leadmonom(1+x(1)); // unit ==> 1 leadmonom(1+x(1)*y(1)); // unit ==> 1 leadmonom(1+y(1)); // no unit ==> y(1) // // 3) K[x,y]_ // ring A4 = (0,y(1..m)),(x(1..n)),ds; leadmonom(1+y(1)); // in ground field ==> 1 leadmonom(1+x(1)*y(1)); // unit ==> 1 leadmonom(1+x(1)); // unit ==> 1 

Note, that even if we implictly compute over the localization of the polynomial ring, most computations are explicitly performed with polynomial data only. In particular, 1/(1-x); does not return a power series expansion or a fraction but 0 (division with remainder in polynomial ring).

See division for division with remainder in the localization and invunit for a procedure returning a truncated power series expansion of the inverse of a unit.